Thomas Buckingham & Son; Puritans

One the benefits of genealogy, for me at least, comes from those moments when I start to see a connection  between my ancestors and all that stuff they tried to teach me in school.  At those moments, I am challenged to crack open some history books, or digital equivalents thereof, in order to gain a better sense of who my people were and how they lived.

For example, my interest in the American Revolution was piqued, first, when I read that Thomas Harding had fought at Saratoga and witnessed the surrender of Burgoyne, and again, when Eneas Gary wrote in his pension files that he helped build a fort on Dorchester Heights overlooking Boston.

Most recently, it happened when I learned that my 8-Great Grandfather, Thomas Buckingham, was a Puritan and a founding member of the New Haven Colony.  In addition to general resources regarding the Puritan migration to New England, I found several sources that refer to Thomas Buckingham specifically.  Way too much information for one blog post!  But here is his story, in a nutshell.

Thomas Buckingham was born about 1607 in England, perhaps Buckinghamshire.  I found nothing about his earlier life there but he must have been a “non-conformist” or “Puritan”; one who was dissatisfied with the rites and rituals of the Church of England and refused to conform to its practices.  As Protestants, they thought the official state Church of England still resembled the Roman Catholic church too much and sought to “purify” it. 

The King, and Parliament, strongly opposed and harassed the non-conformists to the extent that between 1620-1640 some 80,000 people fled England to build new lives for themselves elsewhere.  One of the families that settled in New England was: Thomas Buckingham, 30; his wife Hannah, 26; and their two children, Hannah, 5; and Daniel, 1.

The Buckinghams were part of a group that was, according to one source,  “made up of middle to upperclass merchants and was one of the richest and most influential groups to emigrate to the New World.”  Also on board were two Pastors, John Davidson and Peter Prudden.  If Prudden and Buckingham were not acquainted before this they certainly were for the rest of their lives.

The voyage to America was made on The Hector and another unidentified vessel, each carrying about 100 passengers.  They were probably at sea for 6 to 8 weeks, and arrived at Boston on June 26, 1637.

The group was anxious to start an independent colony free of all religious and political constraints but most of them spent the first winter in Boston while a few were scouting out a location and making preparations.  The following spring, some 250 settlers, including the Buckingham’s, set sail for the area near the mouth of the Quinnipack River (current site of New Haven, CT) and arrived there in April of 1638.

Thomas Buckingham is listed under “Names of Planters” and “Division of Land according to Estate”, so we know that he was a member in good standing of the church and that he was one of the first settlers.  In the first division, he received thirteen acres of upland, two and one-half on the neck, and five of meadow.  In the second division he received twenty acres.

Within a year, plans were forming for yet another settlement about 10 miles farther west. On February 12, 1639, they purchased from the Indians a tract of land, for the consideration of “6 coats, 10 blankets, 1 kettle, besides hoes, knives, hatchets, and glasses (mirrors)”.

The new town was to be called Milford.  The new church was organized at New Haven on Aug. 22,1639 with Peter Prudden as Pastor and Thomas Buckingham as one of the Seven Pillars.

On “moving day” the settlers marched 10 miles through the wilderness, driving their livestock ahead of them.  Some household goods and farm equipment were transported by sea.

On Nov. 29, 1639, Thomas Buckingham’s name was included on the list of Free Planters. His house lot, #36 on the map below, contained three acres.


Being a new settlement in the wilderness, EVERYTHING had to be built.  Church, houses, palisades.  Even their government had to be invented.  Each planter was required to build a house within three years or they would lose their land. 

Thomas Buckingham remained a prominent member of the community in Milford until his deathHis name appears often on the town records usually having to do with land transactions.  One entry, which I found interesting, appears in the town record of May 26, 1657:

A question was brought before the court concerning some fence, in difference, betwixt Thomas Buckingham and Widow Plumb of Milford, which Thomas Buckingham and Richard  Baldwin, brother of Widow Plumb, adjusted, by agreeing to maintain each a certain portion of the fence. The court was satisfied with that agreement and desired them to live in peace and love as neighbors ought to do.

Thomas and Hannah Buckingham had three more children while living in Milford.  The youngest, also named Thomas, was born in 1646, the same year that Hannah Buckingham died.  We do not know for sure when Thomas Jr. was born, but Hannah died on June 25, and Thomas Jr. was baptized on November 8th.

The elder Thomas Buckingham remarried and survived his wife by 11 years, dying at Boston, in the fall of 1657, “where he had gone, on business for the church to seek for them a pastor.” That seems probable because Mr. Prudden had died the year previous, and the church was without a pastor at that time.

As for Thomas Buckingham Jr., (my 7th G-GF) he is also quite noteworthy.

When he was only 19 years old, he began preaching on an interim basis in Saybrook which by then had merged into the Connecticut Colony.   According to the Town Acts of Saybrook, Mr. Buckingham was ordained and installed pastor of the church in 1670, a little over five years from the time he commenced the regular supply of the pulpit.  He remained in that position for over 40 years. 

He evidently held a high rank among the clergymen of the time and was a leader in efforts for the prosperity and extension of the church.  He was a moderator at a synod which convened at Saybrook and formed the platform for the government of the churches in 1708.

He was one of the founders and a Fellow of Yale College.  In fact, the first commencement of Yale College was held at his home in Saybrook.

Town Records also report that frequent grants of land were made to him as his family and expenses increased.  By the time he died, he was quite a landholder.

Finally, the Last Will & Testament of Rev. Thomas Buckingham revealed one more thing about him.  In the abstract of his Will it says “To Mary, his wife, he gives one third of all his real estate, and one-third of all his movables, except only his two negro boys.”   Later on he states who should receive each of the boys, Peter & Phillip, “to be his slave servant”.

What a blow that was.  I knew that my family had been in America since way before the 13th Amendment was enacted; but this is the first evidence I have found that any of my direct ancestors were slave holders.


Chapman, F.W., Buckingham, William A.; The Buckingham Family; or The Descendants of Thomas Buckingham, one of the first settlers of Milford, Conn. (1872); Case, Lockwood & Brainard, Hartford, Conn.

Buckingham, George Tracy; Buckingham Colonial Ancestors’ (1920) Chicago : G.T. Buckingham

23 thoughts on “Thomas Buckingham & Son; Puritans

  1. Wow. Thanks for taking the time to document this. I know it is substantial. Interesting stuff. I need to get into ancestor you and get caught up on all the work you have accoplished.


    • Thomas Buckingham is also my great grandfather!!!!
      Eunice Buckingham moved to South Canaan PA and I am her descendent.
      Thank you for this information, cousin!


      • Mine, too! And I, too, felt this slaveholding as a blow. My now deceased aunt had enjoyed delving into our Buckingham roots, but she never mentioned this to me. As a (very, very distant) relative and as a minister in a similar denomination to Rev. Buckingham, it’s shameful to me to see this history.


  2. Excellent writing and fascinating stories. You come from good stock…well, as good as any of us who came and took over other people’s land 🙂


  3. Wow! Interesting! Especially the last notation about owning slaves. I guess that shouldn’t be a surprise, considering the times, but rather mind boggling to think of.
    I grew up hearing about Rev Thomas Buckingham. Thanks for making him a real person and not just a name and date.


  4. My name is Justin Buckingham and I’m a direct descendant of Thomas Buckingham as well! My branch of the family moved from Connecticut to Michigan sometime between 1823 and 1858. We then moved to Washington State around 1900 and have been here since. We are kin! I’d love to get to know more a out your side of the family.

    It was a pleasure reading your insights into our shared family history. I look forward to hearing from you if you’re so inclined!


  5. Love your story. Thomas Buckingham and Hannah are my 8 times great-grandparents also. However I am a descendent of son Samuel. I guess Reverend Thomas is my 7 times great uncle, if there is such a thing. I am planning to go visit Milford this April for the first time. I feel really fortunate to have a lineage that is so well documented. However, even with the documentation, it is a challenge due to the constant use of the same names throughout the generations. My direct line is Thomas and Hannah, Samuel, Samuel, Enoch, Curtis, Enoch, Dennis, Henry, and Anna (my grandmother).


    • Thank you for your beautiful website and research! I came upon your site while searching for Thomas & Hannah Buckingham. I was hoping to find Hannah’s surname. They are my 8th great-grandparents also. Ann Buckingham was my 4th GG. She was the daughter of Joseph & Sarah Buckingham. I appreciate the narrative you prepared. It is wonderful to learn how God worked in his life and used him in developing a new home in CT. I live in Texas and home to visit Milford one day!


      • Thank you for your kind words. I am always delighted when someone stumbles upon my blog and finds it useful.
        I just noticed on Find-a-Grave, that some has claimed that Hannah’s maiden name was Hawkins.
        I have no idea who posted that or why they think it is true but it may be a lead worth following. Let me know if you learn anything.
        Thanks again,
        Your, very distant cousin, Kevin


  6. As one more descendant of Rev. Thomas Buckingham (b 1605 is my 8th G-Grandfather) I was happy to find this information. I have read a lot about the Buckingham clan and am descended through – Rev. Thomas Jr. to Thomas to Thomas to Thomas and to Jedediah then Stephen (who migrated to New Brunswick) Hezekiah to Stephen Thomas and to my maternal Grandmother Eva Alma Buckingham – born in Canada and migrated to Maine around 1900. Keep reading, all, there is MORE out there.



    • Hello cousin Kevin! I too am a direct descendant of Grampa Buckingham to the 8th generation. Thank you so much for this. Feel free to keep in touch – after all, we’re family!


      • Lisa, I also am a descendant Daniel elder son of Thomas is my 8th great grandfather


    • I have family history, in england, and a link to the Buckingham in Massachusetts. I have not found the to Connecticut Buckingham as yet.
      More information to follow
      Thom Fisher


  7. I have documented my family tree of 14 generations (3 younger than me) to Thomas Buckingham. I am a descendant of Daniel the oldest son of Thomas. Our path led to a family of whalers, sea captains and sail makers based in Port Jefferson, NY. I have created a concise document for this. If anyone is interested feel free to email me at

    My uncle Milton Buckingham was a world-renowned sail maker in Biloxi. His company, Biloxi Tent & Awning still exists today.


    • Forgot to mention. I spent considerable time reviewing the passenger logs for every ship that sailed from England in 1635-37. I could not find any evidence of Thomas Buckingham on the lists.


  8. Fascinating! Rev. Thomas Buckingham had a son named Hezekiah from whom I am descended. Believe it or not, he inherited the “negro boy” Peter from his father.

    I was able to look at and hold the Rev. Thomas Buckingham’s cane which is preserved and housed at Yale University. The books that he donated to the school are still there. He was one of 10 founding fathers.


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